Category Archives: buildings

History of Seattle (part 1)

From the materials for the Alaska-Yukon-Pacifi...

From the materials for the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909, held in Seattle. A drawing of the Battle of Seattle. Despite the “1866” written on the drawing, this should be 1856. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The skyline of Seattle, Washington at dusk. In...

The skyline of Seattle, Washington at dusk. Interstate 5 is the freeway that cuts through downtown and Puget Sound is visible to the left. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: The top of the Space Needle in Seattl...

English: The top of the Space Needle in Seattle, Washington Deutsch: Turmkorb und Spitze der Space Needle, in Seattle (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Seattle Downtown Skyline

Seattle Downtown Skyline (Photo credit: Canadian Pacific)

Seattle lies on a narrow strip of land between the salt waters of Puget Sound and the fresh waters of Lake Washington. Beyond the waters lie two rugged mountain ranges, the Olympics to the west and the Cascades to the east. It is a city built on hills and around water, in a mild marine climate that encourages prolific vegetation and abundant natural resources.

White settlers came to the Seattle area in 1851, establishing a townsite they first called New York, and then, adding a word from the Chinook jargon meaning “by-and-by,” New York-Alki. They soon moved a short distance across Elliott Bay to what is now the historic Pioneer Square district, where a protected deep-water harbor was available. This village was soon named Seattle, honoring a Duwamish Indian leader named Sealth who had befriended the settlers.

The new town’s principal economic support was Henry Yesler’s lumber mill at the foot of Mill Street (now Yesler Way), built in 1853. Much of the mill’s production went to the booming city of San Francisco, but the mill also supplied the fledgling towns throughout the Puget Sound region. A brief Indian “war” in the winter of 1856 interrupted the town’s development, but when the Territorial legislature incorporated Seattle in 1869, there were more than 2,000 residents.

The 1870s were fairly quiet, despite the discovery of coal near Lake Washington, and the consequent growth of another extractive industry whose product also found its way to San Francisco. In the early 1870s the Northern Pacific Railway Company announced that its transcontinental railroad western terminus would be at Tacoma, some forty miles south of Seattle. Despite local leaders’ disappointment, Seattle managed to force a connection with Northern Pacific shortly after its completion in 1883, and the town’s population soared in the late 1880s. Lumber and coal were the primary industries, but the growth of fishing, wholesale trade, shipbuilding, and shipping also contributed to the town’s economic expansion and population growth. One estimate is that in the first half of 1889, Seattle was gaining 1,000 new residents per month; in March alone, there were 500 buildings under construction, most of them built of wood. The explosive growth was slowed but not stopped by a devastating fire on June 6, 1889, which leveled the buildings on 116 acres in the heart of the city’s business district. No one died in the fire, but the property damage ran into millions of dollars.

Enthusiasm for Seattle was little dampened by the fire. In fact, it provided the opportunity for extensive municipal improvements, including widened and regraded streets, a professional fire department, reconstructed wharves, and municipal water works. New construction in the burned district was required to be of brick or steel, and it was by choice on a grander and more imposing scale.

The 1890s were not so prosperous, despite the arrival of another transcontinental railroad, the Great Northern, in 1893. A nationwide business depression did not spare Seattle, but the 1897 discovery of gold along and near the Klondike River in Canada’s Yukon Territory and in Alaska once again made Seattle an instant boom town. The city exploited its nearness to the Klondike and its already established shipping lines to become the premier outfitting point for prospectors. The link became so strong that Alaska was long considered to be the personal property of Seattle and Seattleites.

During the early 1900s, Seattle, now having discovered the rewards of advertising, continued to experience strong growth. Two more transcontinental railroads, the Union Pacific and Milwaukee Road systems, reached Seattle and reinforced the city’s position as a trade and shipping center, particularly with Asia and the North Pacific.

The city’s population became increasingly diversified. Scandinavians came to work in fishing and lumbering, African Americans to work as railroad porters and waiters, and Japanese to operate truck gardens and hotels. There were significant communities of Italians, Chinese, Jews, and Filipinos. The International District, home to several Asian ethnic groups, was largely developed during this period.

With its population now approaching 240,000, Seattle announced its achievements by sponsoring an international fair in 1909. The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition celebrated the economic and cultural links Seattle had forged along what is now known as the North Pacific Rim. The forty-two story L.C. Smith building was completed in 1914. For more than four decades it was the tallest building in the American west and a symbol of Seattle’s booster spirit and metropolitan aspirations.

World War I transformed the city’s shipbuilding industry, which turned out 20 percent of the nation’s wartime ship tonnage. The war also brought Seattle national attention when, early in 1919, workers struck the shipyards to maintain their high wartime wages. This event soon led to the Seattle general strike of February 6-10, the longest such strike in American history. The strike lacked a cogent objective, but its success fueled postwar American fears about radicals and socialists. Along with the city’s early ventures into municipal transit service and public electrical power, the general strike helped establish Seattle’s reputation as a hotbed of political radicalism.

Seattle also had a reputation for a boom-and-bust economy, and the twenties brought depressed conditions in shipbuilding and the lumber trade. The Depression of the 1930s hit Seattle particularly hard, and a “Hooverville” of shacks and lean-tos housing nearly 1,000 unemployed men grew up at an abandoned shipbuilding yard south of Pioneer Square. World War II sparked an economic rebound as shipyards flourished again. The Boeing Company, a modestly successful airplane manufacturer founded in 1916, increased its workforce more than 1,200 percent and its sales from $10 million to $600 million annually during the war years. The war’s end, however, brought an economic slump to the area that persisted until the middle 1950s.

When Boeing successfully introduced the 707 commercial jet airliner in the late 1950s, it heralded another burst of municipal optimism. In 1962 Seattle sponsored a full-fledged world’s fair, the futuristic Century 21 Exposition. The fair left the city a permanent legacy in the Seattle Center and its complex of performance, sports, and entertainment halls, as well as the Pacific Science Center, the Monorail, and the Space Needle.

Since Century 21, the city population has remained fairly stable around the half-million mark, while suburban areas have grown explosively. The Boeing Company suffered a slump in the early 1970s that severely depressed the local economy. The region’s economy has subsequently been steadied and diversified. Weyerhaeuser and Boeing have been a part of that development, along with such high-technology firms as Microsoft. The political strength of Washington Senators Warren G. Magnuson and Henry Jackson in the postwar decades greatly contributed to growth at such research institutions as the University of Washington, and in defense related activities. Seattle has also enjoyed an expanded air and sea trade with Asia, Alaska, and the North Pacific.

Seattle has always exhibited a spirit of optimism, enterprise, and self-promotion. At one time this was institutionalized as “the Seattle Spirit,” a movement that enabled the city literally to move mountains by washing down high hills to improve building sites, to connect Lake Washington and Puget Sound with locks and a canal, and to build the world’s largest man-made island at the mouth of the Duwamish River. More recently, this spirit can be credited with accomplishments like the Forward Thrust program of the 1970s, which built the Kingdome arena and numerous parks throughout the city, including Freeway Park that spans the I-5 freeway with waterfalls and hanging gardens.

Seattle is proud of its arts and cultural institutions, the many live theaters, and the downtown art museum. It is proud of its parks, of its professional and collegiate sports, of Pioneer Square and the Pike Place Market, and, above all, of the beauty of its surroundings. Seattle is also a city of parades, not always respectful of its own brief heritage, not as radical as its legend would have it; a city of homes that has many who are homeless, a city that wants great growth but demands that somehow the setting remain untouched.

 

http://www.seattle.gov/cityarchives/Facts/history.htm

http://www.historylink.org/

http://www.seattlechannel.org/

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Real Places Behind Famously Frightening Stories (an article from Smithsonian Magaine)

English: Cloth Covered, Hard Bound Book, the L...

English: Cloth Covered, Hard Bound Book, the Legend of Sleepy Hollow, by Washington Irving. Published by Thomas Crowl and Company, New York, circa 1907, with gold foil lettering and silky flower pattern cloth. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Real Places Behind Famously Frightening Stories

Light your pumpkin and read about the real places behind some of the world’s classic spo

  • By Robin T. Reid

1 of 10 | Next »»
The Exorcist stairs in Washington DCSleepy Hollow CemeteryBronte Wuthering HeightsCape of Good HopeThe Stanley HotelThe Mikhailovsky Castle
The Exorcist stairs in Washington DC

(LOOK Die Bildagentur der Fotografen GmbH / Alamy )

When Blatty was a student at Georgetown University in 1949, he read newspaper accounts of an exorcism performed on a boy in the D.C. suburbs. He never forgot them; by 1973, they had laid the groundwork for his bestselling book and Oscar-winning movie.

Blatty set his exorcism in Georgetown and made his victim a young girl. In the film, she lived–and levitated and spewed vomit–with her mother in an imposing brick house at 3600 Prospect Street, NW (Blatty had lived on that street during college). Just a short walk away is the famous outdoor stairway that Father Damien Karras tumbled down to his death. The house is private, but the steps are very public, linking Prospect to the busy thoroughfare of M Street, NW.

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Sleepy Hollow Cemetery

(Kevin Fleming / Corbis)

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,” The Sketch Book, Washington Irving
Sleepy Hollow, N.Y.

New York’s Hudson River Valley was the backdrop for “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,” one of the earliest examples of ghost stories in American literature. Irving, a native New Yorker, relied on local landmarks and the lore about them handed down from Dutch settlers who arrived some 200 years before the story was published in 1820.

The real action in “Legend” begins in what is now called Patriots Park; a monument marks the site where in 1780 three men captured British spy Major John Andre beneath a tulip tree. The bad vibes from the event lingered, according to Irving, and it was not far from the “fearful tree” that the hapless Ichabod Crane first saw “something huge, misshapen, black, and towering.” That something of course was the infamous headless Hessian who chased Crane to the Old Dutch Church.

The church still stands, amidst the small graveyard where Irving’s ghostly Hessian soldier, would tether his black steed to the headstones. The writer himself is buried in the adjacent Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, which offers tours of the real sites behind the legend.

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Bronte Wuthering Heights

(Patrick Ward / Corbis)

Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë
Ponden Hall and Top Withens, England

Brontë probably had two places in mind when she imagined Wuthering Heights, the haunted house in Yorkshire at the center of her only novel. The Heights’ remote, windswept location could have been that of Top Withens, a ruined farmhouse that overlooks the moors south of her hometown of Haworth. The structure itself could have been based on Ponden Hall, a 19th-century manor house also near Haworth; the single-paned window on the second floor may well have been the one that Catherine Linton’s ghost tried to climb through one wild, snowy night. (Ponden’s owners, Stephen Brown and Julie Akhurst, do offer tours to small groups.)

Cape of Good Hope

(iStockphoto)

“The Flying Dutchman”
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

The story of a ship called the Flying Dutchman doomed to sail the seas for eternity is a trusty old chestnut much loved in the arts. Richard Wagner turned it into an opera, Washington Irving wrote about it, American artist Albert Pinkham Ryder created a moody portrait of it, and “Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End” introduced modern audiences to the legend.

Many believe the original vessel was sailing between Holland and the Dutch East Indies in the 17th century. As it approached the Cape of Good Hope near the tip of Africa, a fierce storm arose. The captain, perhaps eager to get the trip over with, vowed to round the treacherous coastline even if it took him until doomsday.

Those who want to see the results of his folly can stand watch from the Cape, now part of South Africa’s breathtakingly gorgeous Table Rock National Park.

The Stanley Hotel

(Stock Connection Distribution / Alamy)

The Shining, Stephen King
Stanley Hotel, Estes Park, Colo.

One fall night in 1974, King and his wife stayed in Room 217 of this rambling clapboard hotel in the Rockies. En route to the room, King said later, he saw ghostly children in the halls.

That encounter became a pivotal scene in his novel about a hotel caretaker who becomes possessed by the lodge’s evil spirits and in the 1980 film, starring Jack Nicholson. The Stanley didn’t make it into the movie, however; director Stanley Kubrick used Oregon’s Timberline Lodge, a spooky looking manse of stone and wood.

The Stanley embraces its notoriety just the same. Built in 1909 by automaker F.O. Stanley, the 138-room lodge offers ghost tours that include stops in the Kings’ room and the eerie long corridors. Guides also mention the ghosts King didn’t meet, such as a long-dead housekeeper who folks clothes still and a spirit who does not like anyone touching the hotel’s antique Steinway piano.

Not scary enough? Turn on any TV then and watch “The Shining,” which plays continuously on the in-house channel.

Poenari Castle

(Imagestate Media Partners Limited – Impact Photos / Alamy )


Dracula, Bram Stoker
Poenari Castle, Romania

 

The crumbling fortress perched on a cliff above the Arges River was one of several used by Vlad Dracula, ruler of southern Romania in the 15th century and the man behind Bram Stoker’s immortal (pardon the pun) vampire tale. The castle was in ruins when Dracula came to power. To restore it, the legend goes, he forced several hundred prisoners to ferry bricks and stones up the cliff along a human assembly line.

Poenari (poh-yeh-NAR) is open to anyone able to ascend the more than 1,400 steps that lead to the summit. Once there, spectacular views of the Carpathian Mountains unfold from the battlements–the same ones that Dracula’s wife jumped from in 1462 as she chose death over being captured by the Turkish army encamped below.

The castle Stoker described in his breakout 1897 novel was probably a composite of three. Of those, Poenari was the only one the real Dracula inhabited. He was imprisoned briefly in the second one, Bran Castle, also in Romania. And the third one is Slain’s Castle in Scotland; Stoker stayed near Slain’s for several years and reportedly was inspired by the grim Gothic building on the rocky east coast. It is in ruins now, while Bran is a museum.

Holy Trinity Church

(Lee Pengelly / Alamy)

 

The Hound of the Baskervilles, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Holy Trinity Church, Buckfastleigh, England

 

Richard Cabell was not a popular guy. Some said he was such a hellion that when he died in 1677, his neighbors built a sepulcher around his tomb in Holy Trinity’s cemetery to make sure he couldn’t get out; they even covered the actual grave with a heavy stone slab for good measure.

Such precautions, however, did not prevent Cabell’s hounds from surrounding the mausoleum at night, howling for their master to rise up and hunt with them across the moors of southern England. This legend grabbed the keen imagination of Conan Doyle when he visited Devon in the early 20th century, and he based one of his best-loved Sherlock Homes mysteries on those spectral hunters. In his story, giant paw prints found next to the savagely mutilated body of Sir Charles Baskerville led Holmes on a ghost-hunt.

Much of the 13th-century church burned in 1992. But Cabell’s vault is intact; peek through the barred windows if you dare.

Daphne du Maurier country

(Gary Eastwood Photography / Alamy)

 

Rebecca, Daphne du Maurier
Menabilly, England

 

“Last night, I dreamt I went to Manderly again.” And so begins Daphne du Maurier’s Gothic romance about a young bride trying to live in a home possessed by the spirit of her husband’s first wife.

Manderly was largely based on Menabilly, an Elizabethan-era manor the English writer first saw in the 1920s when she trespassed on its grounds near the Cornish coast. Two decades later, du Maurier–flush with the proceeds from the bestselling novel–was able to rent Menabilly. She lived there with her family until 1969.

The manor house is not open to the public. However, the owners rent out two cottages on the grounds as holiday rentals. The beach around Polridmouth Bay–where Rebecca deWinter’s wrecked sailboat washed up–is accessible via a short hike from the village of Fowey.

Fans of the 1940 movie version of “Rebecca” shouldn’t even try to find the baronial estate that features so prominently in the Oscar-winning film. Director Alfred Hitchcock used a model for the exterior shots. He shot the movie in California since England was in the throes of World War II at the time.

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Comments (12)

I would like to tell u that I don’t believe in the sleepy hollows because its just a legend maybe it is real that would be great because I love the sleepy hollows that’s what I would like to tell u thank you very much

Posted by Brooke on February 19,2013 | 01:37 PM

Hi, I’m Romanian and wanted to tell you that the ruler that inspired Bram Stoker’s novel wasn’t named Vlad Dracula, but Vlad Ţepeş. Dracul (without the “a”) was a nickname he got for being a severe, merciless ruler. It literally means devil or demon. Dracula is just the name that Stoker gave his character, probably after mishearing Vlad’s real nickname( Romanian is a very odd and difficult language for foreigners). Vlad used extreme measures against his enemies (like impaling them in huge stakes and leaving their bodies there to rot, as a chilling reminder that he is not to be messed with) and in at least one known instance he called all the court’s trusted men and their families to a feast and he slaughtered them,because he got word they were plotting against him. Plus, the pronunciation of Poenari you wrote in brackets, is incorrect.

Posted by Diana on January 30,2013 | 09:17 PM

Doesn’t sound as if the person who wrote this piece ever read “Rebecca”. Manderly was not possessed. Nice photo of Menabilly though.

Posted by Jamie Curtis on January 27,2013 | 10:34 PM

While everyone was reading “The Exorcist”, I was not. I was living on Prospect Street in Georgetown, and the thought of reading that scary book about something that took place just a couple of blocks from my house (even though that was not the real location), was too much. I did eventually read the book, and saw the film crew around Georgetown when the movie was being filmed. It is still the scariest movie I’ve ever seen, and I have seen it multiple times! The man who was thrown out the window in the book was a friend, not a boyfriend, as I recall. I think the house in the movie was for sale a couple of years ago. Who could actually live in it – although it probably has fantastic views? Such a creepy story!!

Posted by Suzy on December 9,2009 | 12:16 PM

Sprague Mansion in Cranston, R.I., should also be of interest. There have been many sightings there by folks who no nothing about this old estate. There have been sightings of children playing and many other things seen too! Murders have been linked to the people who lived there in the past!

Posted by Melvyn G. Tavares on November 19,2009 | 08:59 PM

I thoroughly enjoyed reading this article. Like most people when I heard these stories I would imagine what the places looked like. It was really neat to see some of the places look exactly what I had imagined.

Posted by Tracey on November 12,2009 | 11:51 AM

Although the final exorcisims took place in St. Louis, the boy was posessed and first had signs at his home in the Mt. Ranier neighborhood of Northwest D.C. a few miles north of Georgetown.

Posted by Aysha on November 5,2009 | 01:00 PM

Visitors to Cape Point in South Africa will have to enter the Table Mountain National Park (not the Table Rock NP as stated in your article).It is a fantastic place to visit – and the windswept heights and barren mountains lend an espceially romantic atmosphere to the whole Flying Dutchman story too.

Posted by Caroline Voget on October 30,2009 | 03:15 AM

And the exorcisms actually took place in St. Louis, in a hospital that has since been torn down.

Posted by Miles on October 29,2009 | 06:44 AM

The boyfriend took the first tumble, but Karras throws himself down the stairs, too.

Posted by Sara on October 27,2009 | 11:46 AM

Actually it wasn’t father Damien in the film that took the tumble down the steps. It was the boyfriend of the mother. Just thought you should know.

Posted by Nathan Branstetter on October 26,2009 | 12:56 PM

At some point or another every historian becomes interested in the real Dracula, Vlad Tepes. It is interesting here to learn that it is open to visitors. Great article.

Posted by Stacy on October 22,2009 | 02:02 PM

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History of Salem, Massachusetts (part 1)

The Pickman House, Back view that abuts the Sa...

The Pickman House, Back view that abuts the Salem Witch Memorial (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Statue of Nathaniel Hawthorne by sculptor Bela...

Statue of Nathaniel Hawthorne by sculptor Bela Pratt (1867–1917), in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. Copyright (if any) has expired on this image, as the sculptor died more than 70 years ago. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

"The witch no. 1" lithograph

Salem, Massachusetts

Salem, Massachusetts (Photo credit: Dougtone)

Salem, Massachusetts

Salem, Massachusetts (Photo credit: Dougtone)

Salem — seat of Essex County, is located on the northeast coast of Massachusetts at the mouth of the Naumkeag River.

Most people have some knowledge of Salem’s history because it is a fundamental part of early America. Originally the land of the Naumkeag American Indians, it was settled by European colonists in 1626. The city is perhaps best known as the location of the notorious Salem Witch Trials. However, it has also been the home and workplace to numerous authors, artists, architects, state officials and activists, and it is still known for serving as a vital seaport in the nation’s earliest international trade.

Salem was founded in 1626 by Roger Conant and a group of immigrants from Cape Ann. At first the settlement was named Naumkeag, but the settlers preferred to call it Salem, derived from the Hebrew word for peace. In 1628, they were joined by another group, led by John Endecott, from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

The events for which Salem is best remembered began in 1692. A local physician diagnosed several teenage girls as bewitched, which resulted in the hanging of 19 persons and one being crushed to death. When the hysteria had played itself out the following year, an edict was issued that released all people from prison who had been accused of witchcraft. Since then, no one has been hanged for witchcraft in the United States. The history of that period can be explored at the Salem Witch Museum. Numerous original papers from the trials are kept at the Peabody Essex Museum.

The first provincial assembly of Massachusetts was held in Salem, in 1774. During the War of Independence and the War of 1812, Salem was a sanctuary for privateers. During peacetime, Salem ship captains took their vessels to distant ports and earned great wealth for their city. The tall ship Friendship, a replica of an East Indiaman merchant ship built two centuries earlier, is the largest wooden sailing vessel built in New England in more than 100 years. It is berthed at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site.

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 4, 1804, at the peak of Salem’s sailing prosperity. A house believed to have inspired him to write The House of Seven Gables is maintained and open to the public, along with Hawthorne’s nearby birthplace.

At the center of Salem is Washington Square, an eight-acre common dominated by a statue of Roger Conant, the city founder. It is surrounded by magnificent 18th-century homes. Chestnut Street is home to a large concentration of historic mansions as well.

Salem Normal School opened in 1854 to train young women to be teachers. Over the years, it transformed its mission and eventually became Salem State College in 1968.

In 1874, a Salem philanthropist donated $25,000 and a mansion on Charter Street for the establishment of the city’s first hospital. Salem Hospital opened on October 1, 1874, with 12 beds. It was heavily damaged in the great Salem fire of 1914, and new facilities were built on Highland Avenue.

The Salem Atheneum was formed in 1810 by the union of the Social and Philosophical libraries. By 1837, it boasted a collection of around 9,000 volumes. The Salem Public Library is located in the Historic District of Salem, in an 1855 renovated brick mansion originally owned by sea merchant John Bertram.

a witchtrials scene

A witchcraft trials scene depicted in ‘Pioneers in the Settlement of America’ by William A. Crafts. Vol. I Boston: Samuel Walker & Company, 1876. 

Early Salem: The 1600s

In the 1600s the community – which included much of land now incorporated into other towns and cities – prospered under the leadership of historical figures like Roger Conant and Gov. John Endecott. The National Guard considers its origins to be in the 1630s in Salem, where the first military muster was held on the historic Salem Common – today a well-preserved open space. Pioneer Village in Forest River Park, the country’s first living-history museum, recreates life in Salem Village from this time period.

During the infamous Salem Witch Trials of 1692, accusations were lodged against more than a hundred innocent people, and ultimately led to the deaths of 20 men and women.

Salem today contains many landmarks of the trials, the hangings of the accused and the parties involved, as well as numerous museums, tours and attractions that expand on this history. Related spots include: The Witch House (also known as the Corwin House, where witch trials Judge Jonathan Corwin lived, it is now a museum and the only remaining structure with direct ties to the trials), the Old Burying Point, the Peabody Essex Museum, the Salem Witch Museum, the Wax Museum of Witches & Seafarers and the Witch History Museum.

The Great Age of Sail: The 1700s

The city eventually recovered from that dark period, and in the 1700s prospered through its waterfront. By 1790 Salem was the sixth-largest city in the country and possessed a world famous seaport. It was during this period that international trade thrived, particularly the East India and China trades. America’s first millionaires reportedly made their homes in Salem at this time. Today several historic waterfront areas thrive, including Pickering Wharf. Derby Street is home to the visitor’s center, at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site. Next to the site, is the Friendship, a working replica of the East Indiaman a tall ship of 1797.

In 1760 Salemites established one of the first book-sharing networks in the country, allowing residents – most of them wealthy – to discuss their books and their love of the printed word. Then in 1781 the spoils of the Revolutionary War helped create a Philosophical Library. In 1810 the Philosophical Library merged with the book-sharing network to create the Salem Athenaeum, which found a permanent home at 132 Essex St. thanks to a bequest from Caroline Plummer. The Athenaeum later moved to a striking building at 337 Essex St., its current home, which was dedicated in 1907. In addition, in 1899 the Salem Public Library opened on the same block as the Athenaeum when Captain John Bertram (a merchant, philanthropist and former seaman) provided a handsome brick building at 370 Essex St.

A brief history of Salem time

Photos

a witchtrials scene

A witchcraft trials scene depicted in ‘Pioneers in the Settlement of America’ by William A. Crafts. Vol. I Boston: Samuel Walker & Company, 1876.

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The Peabody Essex Museum, the oldest continually operated museum in America, was established by sea captains in 1799. Today it is internationally know for its diverse collections, programs and exhibits – from early Americana to modern marvels. Many rare documents of American and Essex County history are housed at its Phillips Library.

The museum in 2000 re-erected Yin Yu Tang, a late-Qing dynasty Chinese house that serves as a portal to daily life in China 200 years ago – and also symbolizes the connection between Salem and China in the Age of Sail.

Hawthorne’s era: The 1800s

Salem, still at its peak as a port city, was flourishing as it entered the 1800s. This was the era of the famous architect and carver Samuel McIntire, who designed the elegant Hamilton Hall and several Federalist mansions that still remain, particularly in the greater Chestnut Street area named in his honor.

Around the time McIntire was creating his designs, during the transition from the 18th to the 19th century, resident Nathaniel Bowditch was writing the first edition of “American Practical Navigator.” First published in 1802, “American Practical Navigator,” revolutionized sea travel. Considered the founder of modern maritime navigation, Bowditch’s book became one of the most popular in America by the end of the 19th century, and was considered the Bible of sea navigation.

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born here and worked in the Customs House which still stands today. Hawthorne used Salem for the setting of “The Scarlet Letter,” as Arthur Miller later did with “The Crucible.” (Both works were made into major motion pictures.) His classic novel “The House of Seven Gables” was inspired by a real building, which still exists and was recently restored.

This was also the era of Alexander Graham Bell who in the late 1800s lived, worked and made history with his inventions – including important developments in the telephone.

Another ship replica that is open to visitors, the schooner Fame of Salem, is a tribute to the successful privateers in Salem from the War of 1812. (The Fame and the National Guard’s birthplace aren’t Salem’s only ties to the military: Salem residents and factories helped provide supplies in nearly every war from the Revolution to World War II, and the Coast Guard stored seaplanes at Winter Island during the latter.)

Old Town Hall was built in 1816 after the land was donated to the city by John Derby III and Benjamin Pickman Jr., and served as the headquarters for city government until 1836-1837 when the new, present-day City Hall was erected on Washington Street.  The Salem Willows park and its waterfront and amusement park were established in the 1800s, drawing people from all over.

Read more: A brief history of Salem time – History – Salem, Massachusetts – Salem Gazette http://www.wickedlocal.com/salem/town_info/history/x1649544579#ixzz2Q5eBKXTo
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History of Tombstone Arizona (part 1)

Signature of Ed Schieffelin, a prospector who ...

Tombstone Ariona is one of those places that intrigues me, for some unknown reason or another. While I was researching the history of the town, I came across some difficulties finding verifiable information. There was little or no census info., and the info. in the Tombstone local library wasn’t the same as the historical information found online. It was very frustrating, but it seemed that the stories of good old Tombstone being told by the tourist wranglers, tour guides, and local venues were really the ones that the city was standing by. I could find no death records for the prominent years that the city was in operation as a mining town. An explaination for this is that there were so many travelers in and out of the city, that it was impossible to keep track of all that died, most before even 24 hours of residency. Another good excuse was that people didn’t carry identification at that time.

Signature of Ed Schieffelin, a prospector who discovered silver in Cochise County, Arizona Territory in 1877, which led to the founding of Tombstone, Arizona (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
English: Ed Schieffelin during a visit to the ...

English: Ed Schieffelin during a visit to the Yukon River in Alaska in 1882. Cropped version of original image. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Bird Cage Theater as it appears today.

The Bird Cage Theater as it appears today. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ed Schieffelin discovered the Tombstone distri...

Ed Schieffelin discovered the Tombstone district in 1877 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: was built by Albert Schieffelin, brot...

English: was built by Albert Schieffelin, brother of Tombstone, Arizona founder Ed Schieffelin, and William Harwood as a first class opera house, theater, recital hall, and a meeting place for Tombstone citizens. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Tombstone

Tombstone (Photo credit: bugmonkey)

TOMBSTONE ARIZONA HISTORY

Underground America is looking for sponsorship in order to funda documentary series on this town andmany others like it. Ask ushow you can help makethis video series happen!!
HERE IS A COMPILATION OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE HISTORY OF TOMBSTONE,  GATHERED FROM MANY WEBSITES LISTED AT THE END OF THE BLOG. ENJOY! I do not own any of these images, the websites they are hosted on, or the copyrighted clip art or formats used on the host sites.
Historic Allen StreetA BRIEF HISTORY OF TOMBSTONE
Ed SchieffelinTombstone was founded in 1877 by a prospector named Ed Schieffelin.   Ed was staying at what was then called Camp Huachuca (wa-chu-ka) as part of a scouting expedition against the Chiricahua (chir-i-cow-uh) Apaches.   During his time there he would venture out into the wilderness “looking for rocks”, all the while ignoring the warnings he received from the soldiers at the camp.   They would tell him, “Ed, the only stone you will find out there will be your tombstone”.   Well, Ed did find his stone.   And it was Silver.   So, remembering the words of warning from the soldiers, he named his first mine The Tombstone.Click here to learn more about Ed Schieffelin
Tombstone in 1881It wasn’t long before word spread about Ed’s silver strike. Soon prospectors, cowboys, homesteaders, lawyers, speculators, gunmen and business people flocked to the area in droves. In 1879 a town site was laid out on the nearest level spot to the mines, known at that time as Goose Flats, and was appropriately named “Tombstone” after Ed Schieffelin’s first mining claim.
Parade down Allen Street in the late 1800'sBy the mid 1880’s Tombstone’s population had increased to around 7,500. This figure counted only the white male registered voters that were over 21 years of age. If you take into account the women, children, Chinese, Mexicans and the many “ladies of the evening” the estimates are that the population was between 15,000 and 20,000 people. At its peak, it is said to have been the fastest growing city between St. Louis and San Francisco. There were over one hundred saloons, numerous restaurants, a large red-light district, an even larger Chinese population, schools, churches, newspapers, and one of the first public swimming pools in Arizona (which is still used today).
Historic Schieffelin HallThere were a few theaters in town, the most famous of them being Schieffelin Hall and the Bird Cage Theatre. Schieffelin Hall was where the “respectable” people in town went for entertainment. It opened in June of 1881 and was built for the people of Tombstone by Ed Schieffelin’s Brother Al. It is the largest standing adobe structure in the southwest United States and was built to be used as a theater, recital hall and a meeting place for Tombstone Citizens. Wyatt and Morgan Earp attended a performance there the evening that Morgan was killed by an assassin’s bullet. It is still in use today by city government and civic groups.CLICK HERE to buy a vintage image of
historic Schieffelin Hall.

Birdcage Theatre

The Bird Cage Theatre is another story. It was a saloon, theater, gambling hall and brothel. Legend has it that no self-respecting woman in town would even walk on the same side of the street as the Bird Cage Theatre. It opened its doors on Christmas Day 1881 and ran 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year until closing its doors in 1889. In 1882, The New York Times reported, “the Bird Cage Theatre is the wildest, wickedest night spot between Basin Street and the Barbary Coast.” Evidence of this can still be seen in the 140 supposed bullet holes that have been found in the walls and ceiling. The Bird Cage was named for the cage style crib compartments suspended from the ceiling. It was in these “Bird Cages” that the “ladies of the evening” entertained their customers. The story goes that they were the inspiration for the song, “She’s only a bird in a gilded cage”, which was quite popular during the early 1900’s.

After the fire of 1882

Two major fires swept through Tombstone during the 1880’s. Legend has it that in June of 1881 a cigar ignited a barrel of whiskey at the Arcade Saloon. The subsequent fire destroyed over 60 businesses in the downtown area. But the town rebuilt itself and kept on growing. In May of 1882 another fire ripped through downtown Tombstone destroying a large portion of the business district. Again, the town rebuilt.

Welcome to Boothill Graveyard

Tombstone is also the home of Boothill Graveyard. Boothill began in 1879 and was used until 1884 when the New Tombstone City Cemetery was opened on west Allen Street. After the opening of the new cemetery, Boothill became known as “The Old Cemetery”. The City cemetery is still in use today. Legend has it that Boothill was named for the fact that many residents there died violent or unexpected deaths and were buried with their boots on. However, it was actually named Boothill after Dodge City’s pioneer cemetery in the hopes of attracting tourists in the late 1920’s. Many famous Tombstone folks lie there including the victims of the 1881 Shootout on Fremont Street between the Earps and the Cowboys. For many years, it was neglected. The desert overtook parts of it and vandals removed grave markers. Then, in the 1920’s concerned citizens began the process of cleaning up the Old Cemetery and researching the placement of the graves to preserve it for future generations (and to make a little money on tourism).

Click here to learn more about Tombstone’s Cemeteries.

Restored OK Corral Site

The most famous event in Tombstone’s history was the famed Gunfight at the OK Corral, which didn’t actually happen at the corral, but in a vacant lot on Fremont Street. On October 26, 1881, members of the “Cowboys” had a run-in with Wyatt, Virgil and Morgan Earp with help from Wyatt’s friend Doc Holliday. 24 seconds and 30 shots later, Billy Clanton, Tom and Frank McLaury were mortally wounded. In many peoples opinion, it was this one event that has kept Tombstone alive for all these years.

the 1882 Cochise County CourthouseIn 1882 the Cochise County Courthouse was built at a cost of around $45,000. It provided offices for the county sheriff, recorder, treasurer, board of supervisors, and included a well-built jail. The courthouse was a comfortable symbol of law and stability in these turbulent times. The county seat remained in Tombstone until voters in 1929 chose to move it to Bisbee, a bustling copper mining town 29 miles away. The last county office left the courthouse in 1931. Budget cuts in 2010 by Gov. Jan Brewer almost forced the Museums closure. Luckily the Tombstone Chamber of Commerce stepped in and met the demands from the state to take over operation of the museum.

Click here to learn more about the old Cochise County Courthouse

Abandoned buildings on Allen Street in the 1940's

As the silver mining continued the mineshafts were dug deeper and deeper to get the precious ore. Once they hit the 520 foot level, the water table was reached which flooded the mines. Attempts to pump out the water marginally worked for a few years but soon became too costly to continue. As the mining slowed down, the people of Tombstone started leaving, but not before $37,000,000 worth of ore had been taken from the many mines in the area. It is estimated that by the early 1930’s Tombstone’s population dwindled to around 150 people.

View of Tombstone

Today, Tombstone is home to around 1500 year round residents who enjoy the wonderful climate that Cochise County’s high desert has to offer and believe in preserving the history and heritage of the Wildest Town in the West!


TOMBSTONE
NAME: Tombstone
COUNTY: Cochise
ROADS: 2WD paved
LEGAL INFO: T20S, R22E
CLIMATE: Mild winter, hot summer
BEST TIME TO VISIT: Anytime
COMMENTS: Many ghost towns in the area that are worth seeing. Video available, see below.
REMAINS: Many original buildings and cemetery.

Tombstone’s post office was established December 2, 1878 and has yet to be discontinued. Tombstone is the most famous of Arizona mining camps with its colorful history. Discovered by Ed Schieffelin in 1878, the mine went on to produce millions. Tombstone had over 15,000 residents at one time. Fires nearly caused the death of Tombstone twice but the town was resilient. Famous for the O.K. Corral shootout with the Earps and Boot Hill cemetery, Tombstone is well worth the visit! – GTombstone Ariona is one of those places that intrigues me, for some unknown reason or another. While I was researching the history of the town, I came across some difficulties finding verifiable information. There was little or no census info., and the info. in the Tombstone local library wasn’t the same as the historical information found online. It was very frustrating, but it seemed that the stories of good old Tombstone being told by the tourist wranglers, tour guides, and local venues were really the ones that the city was standing by. I could find no death records for the prominent years that the city was in operation as a mining town. An explaination for this is that there were so many travelers in and out of the city, that it was impossible to keep track of all that died, most before even 24 hours of residency. Another good excuse was that people didn’t carry identification at that time.

History of Tombstone Arizona (part 1)

Posted by Thornie

Signature of Ed Schieffelin, a prospector who ...

Signature of Ed Schieffelin, a prospector who discovered silver in Cochise County, Arizona Territory in 1877, which led to the founding of Tombstone, Arizona (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Signature of Ed Schieffelin, a prospector who discovered silver in Cochise County, Arizona Territory in 1877, which led to the founding of Tombstone, Arizona (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Ed Schieffelin during a visit to the Yukon River in Alaska in 1882. Cropped version of original image. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Bird Cage Theater as it appears today. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ed Schieffelin discovered the Tombstone district in 1877 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: was built by Albert Schieffelin, brother of Tombstone, Arizona founder Ed Schieffelin, and William Harwood as a first class opera house, theater, recital hall, and a meeting place for Tombstone citizens. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Tombstone (Photo credit: bugmonkey)

TOMBSTONE ARIZONA HISTORY

Underground America is looking for sponsorship inorder to funda documentary series on this town andmany others like it. Ask ushow you can help make

this video series happen!!

HERE IS A COMPILATION OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE HISTORY OF TOMBSTONE,  GATHERED FROM MANY WEBSITES LISTED AT THE END OF THE BLOG. ENJOY! I do not own any of these images, the websites they are hosted on, or the copyrighted clip art or formats used on the host sites.
Historic Allen StreetA BRIEF HISTORY OF TOMBSTONE
Ed SchieffelinTombstone was founded in 1877 by a prospector named Ed Schieffelin.   Ed was staying at what was then called Camp Huachuca (wa-chu-ka) as part of a scouting expedition against the Chiricahua (chir-i-cow-uh) Apaches.   During his time there he would venture out into the wilderness “looking for rocks”, all the while ignoring the warnings he received from the soldiers at the camp.   They would tell him, “Ed, the only stone you will find out there will be your tombstone”.   Well, Ed did find his stone.   And it was Silver.   So, remembering the words of warning from the soldiers, he named his first mine The Tombstone.Click here to learn more about Ed Schieffelin
Tombstone in 1881It wasn’t long before word spread about Ed’s silver strike. Soon prospectors, cowboys, homesteaders, lawyers, speculators, gunmen and business people flocked to the area in droves. In 1879 a town site was laid out on the nearest level spot to the mines, known at that time as Goose Flats, and was appropriately named “Tombstone” after Ed Schieffelin’s first mining claim.
Parade down Allen Street in the late 1800'sBy the mid 1880′s Tombstone’s population had increased to around 7,500. This figure counted only the white male registered voters that were over 21 years of age. If you take into account the women, children, Chinese, Mexicans and the many “ladies of the evening” the estimates are that the population was between 15,000 and 20,000 people. At its peak, it is said to have been the fastest growing city between St. Louis and San Francisco. There were over one hundred saloons, numerous restaurants, a large red-light district, an even larger Chinese population, schools, churches, newspapers, and one of the first public swimming pools in Arizona (which is still used today).
Historic Schieffelin HallThere were a few theaters in town, the most famous of them being Schieffelin Hall and the Bird Cage Theatre. Schieffelin Hall was where the “respectable” people in town went for entertainment. It opened in June of 1881 and was built for the people of Tombstone by Ed Schieffelin’s Brother Al. It is the largest standing adobe structure in the southwest United States and was built to be used as a theater, recital hall and a meeting place for Tombstone Citizens. Wyatt and Morgan Earpattended a performance there the evening that Morgan was killed by an assassin’s bullet. It is still in use today by city government and civic groups.

CLICK HERE to buy a vintage image of
historic Schieffelin Hall.

Birdcage Theatre

The Bird Cage Theatre is another story. It was a saloon, theater, gambling hall and brothel. Legend has it that no self-respecting woman in town would even walk on the same side of the street as the Bird Cage Theatre. It opened its doors on Christmas Day 1881 and ran 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year until closing its doors in 1889. In 1882, The New York Times reported, “the Bird Cage Theatre is the wildest, wickedest night spot between Basin Street and the Barbary Coast.” Evidence of this can still be seen in the 140 supposed bullet holes that have been found in the walls and ceiling. The Bird Cage was named for the cage style crib compartments suspended from the ceiling. It was in these “Bird Cages” that the “ladies of the evening” entertained their customers. The story goes that they were the inspiration for the song, “She’s only a bird in a gilded cage”, which was quite popular during the early 1900′s.

After the fire of 1882

Two major fires swept through Tombstone during the 1880′s. Legend has it that in June of 1881 a cigar ignited a barrel of whiskey at the Arcade Saloon. The subsequent fire destroyed over 60 businesses in the downtown area. But the town rebuilt itself and kept on growing. In May of 1882 another fire ripped through downtown Tombstone destroying a large portion of the business district. Again, the town rebuilt.

Welcome to Boothill Graveyard

Tombstone is also the home of Boothill Graveyard. Boothill began in 1879 and was used until 1884 when the New Tombstone City Cemetery was opened on west Allen Street. After the opening of the new cemetery, Boothill became known as “The Old Cemetery”. The City cemetery is still in use today. Legend has it that Boothill was named for the fact that many residents there died violent or unexpected deaths and were buried with their boots on. However, it was actually named Boothill after Dodge City’s pioneer cemetery in the hopes of attracting tourists in the late 1920′s. Many famous Tombstone folks lie there including the victims of the 1881 Shootout on Fremont Street between the Earps and the Cowboys. For many years, it was neglected. The desert overtook parts of it and vandals removed grave markers. Then, in the 1920′s concerned citizens began the process of cleaning up the Old Cemetery and researching the placement of the graves to preserve it for future generations (and to make a little money on tourism).

Click here to learn more about Tombstone’s Cemeteries.

Restored OK Corral Site

The most famous event in Tombstone’s history was the famed Gunfight at the OK Corral, which didn’t actually happen at the corral, but in a vacant lot on Fremont Street. On October 26, 1881, members of the “Cowboys” had a run-in with Wyatt, Virgil and Morgan Earp with help from Wyatt’s friend Doc Holliday. 24 seconds and 30 shots later, Billy Clanton, Tom and Frank McLaury were mortally wounded. In many peoples opinion, it was this one event that has kept Tombstone alive for all these years.

the 1882 Cochise County CourthouseIn 1882 the Cochise County Courthouse was built at a cost of around $45,000. It provided offices for the county sheriff, recorder, treasurer, board of supervisors, and included a well-built jail. The courthouse was a comfortable symbol of law and stability in these turbulent times. The county seat remained in Tombstone until voters in 1929 chose to move it to Bisbee, a bustling copper mining town 29 miles away. The last county office left the courthouse in 1931. Budget cuts in 2010 by Gov. Jan Brewer almost forced the Museums closure. Luckily the Tombstone Chamber of Commerce stepped in and met the demands from the state to take over operation of the museum.

Click here to learn more about the old Cochise County Courthouse

Abandoned buildings on Allen Street in the 1940's

As the silver mining continued the mineshafts were dug deeper and deeper to get the precious ore. Once they hit the 520 foot level, the water table was reached which flooded the mines. Attempts to pump out the water marginally worked for a few years but soon became too costly to continue. As the mining slowed down, the people of Tombstone started leaving, but not before $37,000,000 worth of ore had been taken from the many mines in the area. It is estimated that by the early 1930′s Tombstone’s population dwindled to around 150 people.

View of Tombstone

Today, Tombstone is home to around 1500 year round residents who enjoy the wonderful climate that Cochise County’s high desert has to offer and believe in preserving the history and heritage of the Wildest Town in the West!


TOMBSTONE
NAME: Tombstone
COUNTY: Cochise
ROADS: 2WD paved
LEGAL INFO: T20S, R22E
CLIMATE: Mild winter, hot summer
BEST TIME TO VISIT: Anytime
COMMENTS: Many ghost towns in the area that are worth seeing.
REMAINS: Many original buildings and cemetery.

Tombstone’s post office was established December 2, 1878 and is still in operation today. Tombstone became one of the most famous Arizona mining camps with its colorful history. Discovered by Ed Schieffelin in 1878, the mine went on to produce millions of dollars in silver ore. Tombstone had over 15,000 residents at the ehight of its operation. Fires nearly caused the death of Tombstone twice but the town was resilient. Famous for the O.K. Corral shootout with the Earps and Boot Hill cemetery, Tombstone is well worth the visit! –Tombstone has since earned the nick-name “the Town Too Tough to Die”. One day in 1877 the prospector Ed Schieffelin stood in Camp Huachuca and he looked out on the mountains in the northeast. The rich colors of the mountains looked very pleasing and full of promise and he decided to go there and dig a little. When he mentioned that to the soldier at his side, the soldier warned him against digging in that area, saying that the Apache indians that controlled and settled in the mountains, would respond with violence.“All you’ll find in those hills is your tomb-stone”. In February 1878 Schieffelin decided to go alone on the search after his fortune. He found a vein rich with silver ore, not the gold ore he was hoping for, but large enough to make him an instantly rich man. Remembering what the soldier had told him about never finding anything but his tombstone, he registered the two mining sites: “the Tombstone” and “the Graveyard”. He decided to send for his brother, Al, and have him come and survey the value of the ore so he traveled all the way to Signal (now ghost town about 170 miles away by plane from Tombstone). The brothers returned together with Mr. Richard K.Gird, who saw the ore value, and the brothers into a partnership. On the way back, Ed found two more spots teaming with silver ore and registered those lots as “Lucky Cuss” (his nich name for himself) and “the Toughnut” (he joked that will be “a tough nut to crack”). 40 million dollars in silver (value of 1.7 billion dollars today) was the result from those and other mines in the area between 1880-1886. Tombstone who flourished under the hunt of silver in the beginning of 1880 was known as one of the most notorious and violent towns in the Wild West – where the silver was king, – but now, Tombstone is a very nice place to visit.The city had 4 churches, a school, two banks, a newspaper (“The Epitaph”), one opera and about 15000 citizens. One big fire destroyed the Main Street in 1881 and in 1882, and each time it was built up again.

Ed Schieffelin left Tombstone and set off   after a new adventure to the Yukon. Despite the fact that these facts are difficult to verify, Tombstone was the place were men lived fast, and died quickly.

The fight which took place by the OK Corral in 1881 is remembered as the most notorious gun fight in the history of the town. The main reason for the shooting was a struggle for political power in the newly founded Cochise County. On the one side was Sheriff Johny Behan and Clanton clan who ran a place called “moonshine ranch” where they dabbled in stolen cattle and staged bar and coach robberies. The good guys were U.S. Marshall Wyatt Earp, his brothers Virgil and Morgan, and the known alcoholic gunman “Doc” Holliday. In the afternoon on October 26, came Earp brothers and Holliday to corner of Fremont and 3th Street where five young members of Clanton gang were looking a fight. According the late explanation of Ikke Clanton, Wyatt Earp pushed his gun into Clantons stomach and yelled “You son of a bitch, you can have a fight.” Clanton turned around and tried to run away, and in about 30 seconds, 3 of Clanton’s men were dead and Virgil and Morgan were serious wounded. The Earp brothers and Holliday were questened in court and found not guilty. Two months later around midnight a masked man tried to kill Virgil Earp, but they only invalided his arm for the rest of his live. Three months after that, an asian man killed Morgan Earp. Wyatt Earp, who worked outside the law to find the killer, killed 3 men who were suspected for the murder of his brother, and left Cochise County forever.

Because of the many killings that occured almost every day, President Chester Arthur was ready to send military into the town in hopes of getting some much needed help, when the troubles topped in 1882.  110 permits for serving the alcohol were given to bar and restaraunt owners.

In 1886, water was flooding into the mines which collapsed under the massive amount of water, and that was end of mining. Charleston and Millville, sister cities, died,  and Tombstone was seriously “wounded”. The numbers of citizens dropped but the town survived. Mines started to open again in 1890 an those worked until after the change of the new millenium, when flooding stopped the mining, yet again. When the town lost the title as County town to Bisbee, proclaimed the newspaper “Graham County Guardian”: “Tombstone got his dead stitch”. The pockets of silver in the mountains are changed to silver in the pockets by the tourists, and Tomb-stone is still in live and lives good as a tourist town by his history. Beside others, the restored Crystal Palace Saloon from 1879 were was the office of city Marshall Virgil Earp and Sheriff Johny Behan; and OK Corral, which became famous in one turbulent moment of shooting, are now booming tourist attractions, and are open again. Allen Street (named after John Allen), once filled with over 130 bars, casinos, bordells and the Courthouse have all been restored. The original Cochise County Court-house build in 1882, including court hall and gallows are now official  “State Historic Parks”.


OK Corral
Courtesy Dolores Steele

City Hall
Courtesy Dolores Steele

Tombstone Epitaph
Courtesy Dolores Steele

Longhorn – 1884
Courtesy Dolores Steele

Big Nose Kates Saloon
Courtesy Dolores Steele


Birdcage Theater – most famous Honky-Tonk in America between 1881 and 1889
Courtesy Dolores Steele


Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran


Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran


Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran


Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran


Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran


Boot Hill
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Tombstone
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Ed Schieffelin Grave
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone in 1881
Courtesy Arizona Historical Society
John Heath Lynching Feb. 22, 1884
Courtesy Arizona Historical Society
Custom made Cherrywood Bar
Courtesy Dolores Steele
Card table in the Bird Cage
Courtesy Dolores Steele
Bird Cage Theater
Courtesy Dolores Steele
Tombstone
Courtesy Dolores Steele
Tombstone
Courtesy Dolores Steele
Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran

Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran


Tombstone
Courtesy Theresa and Cian Corcoran


Tombstone – late 1890s or early 1900s
Courtesy Tom McCurnin


Golden Nugget Saloon
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Tombstone – Courthouse
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Tombstone – Ed Schieffelin Monument
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Inside Crystal Palace Saloon
Courtesy Tom McCurnin


Tombstone – Silver Nugget Saloon
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Tombstone – Undertaker Car
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Tombstone – Undertaker Car
Courtesy Bobby Krause Zlatevski


Schieffelin Hall
Courtesy Tom McCurnin


St. Pauls
Courtesy Tom McCurnin


Miners Shack
Courtesy Tom McCurnin


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


Tombstone
From the Johnnie Walker Collection
Courtesy Charlie Osborn


VIDEO AVAILABLE

http://www.tombstoneweb.com/

http://www.ghosttowns.com/states/az/tombstone.html

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English: Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. There a...

English: Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. There are no known portaits of Point du Sable made during his lifetime. This depiction is taken from A.T. Andreas 1884 book History of Chicago. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

English: René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“It is hopeless for the occasional visitor to try to keep up with Chicago. She outgrows his prophecies faster than he can make them.” – Mark Twain, 1883

Trying to put together a brief history of the city of Chicago isn’t an easy undertaking. The city is so deep in rich and colorful history that a writer could spend entire weeks trying to capture it all, and still feel as though it wasn’t complete. I suppose that I should get used to that feeling, considering that the next few cities that I poke around at are generally in the same historical boat. With Chicago, I decided that the Illinois Indians were the perfect place to start.

The Illinois Indians 

The name “Illinois” itself is an Algonquian Indian word. It comes from the Miami-Illinois tribal name Illiniwek, which means “the people.” The Illini Indians were not the only Native Americans in Illinois, however, despite the fact that no nationally recognised tribes exist within the state of Illinois today. The state of the Illinois Indian tribes today is not due to extinction, but rather to forced relocation. Like many other native tribes, they were forced to move to Indian reservations in Oklahoma by the American government.

At the time of the first white settlement the Potawatomi Indian tribe inhabited the Chicago region.

The Mounds

Illinois is often remembered for the beauty and intrique of the natural earthen formations found within her region, the mounds being one of the main objects of curiosity and controversy. The narture of these mounds has been a rousing debate and heated point of conversation for even the first settlers in the territory. For many years theories of all sorts have been thrown around, some attributing the mounds to a race of “mound-builders” who were supposed to have come from Asia, Mexico, or even more remote places. Others theories often linked them to some sort of “faerie” mound, or possible burial sites.

The Bureau of American Ethnology undertook a survey of the mounds in the eastern United States late in the 20th century.  The reports which resulted from this work helped to offer some much less speculative and more scientific views of the anomallies. The following general facts were uncovered by the project…

While many of the mounds are obviously prehistoric, some of them have been proved by their contents to be post-Columbian. According to the pamphlet  Indians of the Chicago Region, With Special Reference to the Illinois and the Potawatomip, “...a great amount of historical evidence, moreover, clearly shows that the Indians occupying the mound region at the time they were visited by the first explorers, were actually “mound builders,” and raised both towns and places of worship on these artificial eminences. The human remains found in the mounds that have been excavated to date, are all of the American Indian type, and represent only the recent period of geologic time.”

Several types have been found, but  the most interesting (to me) are the effigy mounds which seem to represent animals of several varieties.  Ancestors of the Winnebago, and nearby peoples of Siouan stock seem to be the closest in origin.

Early Chicago

In 1682, René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle had claimed a large territoryof the Illinois area, including what is now Chicago , for France. In 1763 the French ceded this area to Great Britain’s Province of Quebec following the French and Indian War. Great Britain then ceded the area to the United States at the end of the American Revolutionary War

Chicago’s first permanent resident was a trader named Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, a free black man apparently from Haiti, who came here in the late 1770’s. He traded furs with the Indians on the north bank of the Chicago River, where he lived with his wife Catherine until 1796. He and his family then left with their children and moved to Peoria, Illinois.

Fort Dearborn

United States fort built in 1803 beside the Chicago River in what is now Chicago, Illinois, Fort Dearborn was constructed by troops under Captain John Whistler and named in honor of Henry Dearborn, then United States Secretary of War. Settlers thought it would keep them safe from invading forces, but they were wrong, it didn’t. In 1812, the U.S. had another war with England, except this one was unique in that the English joined the Native Americans to try to win back their territory.

Chicago, 1812: This illustration is inspired by a diorama from the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition showing an unnamed Native American, the Kinzie house, Fort Dearborn, and the dunes at the lakeshore on the horizon.

When the war of 1812 broke out between Great Britain and the United States, the government ordered for the abandonment and closure of Fort Dearborn, and because of this, onn August 15, 1812, many soldiers and settlers left Fort Dearborn to go to Fort Wayne in Indiana. As the last of the travelers were in process of relocating , over 500 natives attacked. About half the people in the group were killed by natives, the rest were taken prisoner. Natives then burned Fort Dearborn to the ground.

The Fort lay unoccupied and in ruin, until 1816 when American soldiers rebuilt Fort Dearborn.

Fort Dearborn was rebuilt in 1816, and slowly, settlers started to come back, but settlers were still afraid of the Native Americans. In 1818 Illinois became a state. South parts of Illinois had a population of about 40,000 people. Around then, only about 100 people lived in Chicago.

 

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